1. If a player does not have an official handicap in a country outside of the UAE, the Club Committee decides and proposes the handicap to the EPA Handicap Committee.
  2. The EPA Handicap Committee meets on the 1st Sunday following the last high goal tournament to review the previous season.
  3. For a 0-8 handicap tournament, the handicaps of the players is to be overseen and decided by the Club Handicap Committee and ratified by the EPA Handicap Committee
  4. For a 8-18 (medium & higher) handicap tournament, the handicaps of the players is to be overseen and decided by the EPA Handicap Committee
  5. The 1st of December is the deadline for the official registration of the high goal teams for the season.
  6. The official handicap of a player lasts for one season after it has been published by the EPA.
  7. If the player has gone up in Argentina and not already registered in any team already playing, the player has to play in the UAE season with the highest handicap if he goes up
  8. If he goes down and not already registered as playing in any team, he must come with his handicap before December 1st
  9. If an amateur gets injured or cannot play for legitimate reasons, only another amateur can replace him/her
  10. New Player Registration: If a player is registered before December 1st but is not in any of the 18 goal handicap teams and he is not coming to play any tournament in UAE before December 20th he will play with his highest handicap in the world
  11. Players with 2 ratings in HPA: If a player has two different handicaps ( HPA ) he will play in the UAE with the Highest one
  12. Ladies Handicap: All Lady players with a handicap will play with the highest in the world until they are rated and get an EPA ladies hcp


The following rules have been extracted from the Emirates Polo Association Rules 2017

1. EPA Handicap Committee. The EPA Handicap Committee shall consist of a chairman (“the Handicap Chairman”) who shall normally be a Board Member of the EPA and not more than ten other members, who shall be elected by the Board of the EPA annually. Five voting members shall form a quorum. The members of the Handicap Committee shall be notified who has been selected to be a member of the EPA Handicap Committee by a notice issued by the Chairman of the EPA Handicap Committee.


2. Reviews of Official Handicaps.
It is within the remit of the EPA Handicap Committee to change any player’s handicap at any time. Any such change shall become effective as notified by the EPA. The Handicap Committee shall review official handicaps on the basis of recommendations from Club Handicap Committees (see Appendix 1 for Guidelines). The founding Club Handicap Committees shall be from Desert Palm, the Dubai Polo & Equestrian Club, the Al Habtoor Polo Resort & Club and the Ghantoot Racing and Polo Club. The EPA Handicap Committee can add any new Club Handicap Committee if any new club opens in the UAE. Each Club Handicap Committee shall have a chairman who is a member of the EPA Handicap Committee but who is not entitled to vote.

The EPA Handicap Committee shall meet annually on the Sunday following the final of the Dubai Gold Cup (and on an ad hoc basis as convened by the Chairman of the EPA Handicap Committee on 14 days’ notice).

The EPA Handicap Committee shall approve the handicaps as follows:
(i) In a 0-8 goal handicap tournament, the handicap of the participating players is to be overseen and decided by the Club Handicap Committee
(ii) In an 8-18 goal (medium & higher) handicap tournament, the handicap of the participating players is to be overseen and decided by the EPA Handicap Committee

In any EPA tournament, if an amateur player has to retire or is injured, the amateur player shall be replaced by another amateur player (and not any groom or professional).

In any year, the 1st of December is the deadline for the official registration with the EPA of the high goal teams and players.

b. The Handicap Chairman has the power to co-opt additional members for the above meetings. Anyone who has an interest (team, family, employer etc) must declare this before they enter into any discussion. The impact that a handicap decision has on the future employment of a player should not be discussed.

c. All members of the EPA Handicap Committee present have one vote (except for the Chairman of any Club Handicap Committee) regardless of any interests or whether or not they have seen the player play. They are there to make a judgement on the various recommendations and information provided by those present. They may take into account their knowledge of the individual player if they are in a position to do so. A majority is required for a handicap to change

d. The Chairman may vote in the first round or not as he wishes. Whether or not he has previously voted, if the votes are even, he may have the casting vote. The EPA will record any vote and the votes regarding an individual player may be provided upon the request of the player.


3. Allotment of Handicap from a CV Form. The allotment of a handicap will be at the discretion of the EPA Handicap Committee. The handicap awarded will be placed in brackets and will normally be the highest handicap held in any country during the 12 months previous subject to the following:

a. Player Going Up in another Country. If the EPA is aware that the handicap of the player is due to be changed then the EPA Handicap Committee may award the new handicap before 1st December in any year. If the player’s handicap goes up in another country after 1st December in another country, before the player has registered with the EPA for that season, then the EPA Handicap Committee may award the higher handicap. If they have registered before 1st December, the player shall keep the handicap that the player had at the time of registration.

b. Players Gone Down in Another Country. A player or former player whose handicap has been lowered in the last 12 months may be awarded his current (lower) handicap provided that he has notified the EPA by 1 December in any year. If the player registers after the 1st December the player shall be awarded the handicap the player held before the 1st December.

c. Past Players. The Handicap Committee is able to grant a handicap to a player who has been out of polo for 2 years on the basis of a CV form and club recommendation.


4. Appeals. Appeals should be made to the Chairman of the EPA. He will not consider appeals on the subjective view on handicap levels, but only if there has been a substantially incorrect procedure or substantially incorrect information provided.


The following rules have been extracted from the Emirates Polo Association Rules 2017 

2.22 Tournament Committee

1. Requirement. For any tournament the host club will appoint a Tournament Committee of three or more individuals, who preferably should have no vested interest in the outcome of the event. In the absence of a Tournament Committee, the Polo Manager of the Club or his representative with the umpires and referee shall act as the Tournament Committee.


2. Authority and Duties. The Tournament Committee has authority over all matters pertaining to  the  Tournament.  This  will  include  jurisdiction  over  any  offence committed within the Polo Grounds except that the authority of the referee and the umpires will be absolute immediately before, during and immediately after the game on matters regarding the conduct of play. The Tournament Committee will be charged with the overall responsibility for the running of the tournament which shall include:

  • Checking the eligibility of each entry and any subsequent substitution.
  • Informing a team of a change in the entry of an opposing team.
  • Structure of the tournament and the draw. This should include how extra time will be played (see Rule 2.27 Widened Goals).
  • Scheduling of matches.
  • Appointment of officials. The team captain or the team manager may not appeal against the appointment of any particular umpire, referee or other official nor against the time or venue of a game
  • Provision of the grounds and the necessary equipment.
  • Overseeing, through  the  Club  Welfare  Officer,  the  welfare  of  ponies  in particular their condition, shoeing and watering.
  • Determining an order of merit. This should include whether a Penalty Shoot Out will be used to determine the order of merit (See Annex D Para 10).

Guidelines for the format of tournaments and the rules for calculating the order of merit within and across leagues and/or groups are at Annex D.


3. Entry Forms. A Club wishing to run a tournament must prHPAre an entry form which should include the following:

  • Name of tournament.
  • Handicap level.
  • Inclusive dates.
  • No Play Dates.
  • Status (eg, official or if not, any special conditions that apply).
  • Entry fee and note of any additional cost of officials, medical cover etc.
  • Closing date of entry.
  • Blank line so teams can enter dates on which they would prefer not to play.
  • For leagues or groups whether matches are to be played to a result or may finish in a draw.
  • Any disclaimer and additional information.
  • Declaration as to eligibility of those entered.
  • Signature Block.


The following rules have been extracted from the Emirates Polo Association Rules 2017

4. The Umpires. See Rule 1.3 and 1.5

a. One Umpire. The Tournament Committee may stipulate in the tournament conditions that there will only be one Umpire or, if this has not been done and in order to get a match started, invite the two Captains to agree to only one. When there is only one umpire, there will normally be a referee but he too on occasion may be dispensed with. If there is only one umpire the mounted umpire can ask for the view of the referee if there is one but the umpire has to make the decision.

b. Game Stopped or Abandoned. Should the umpires decide that a match should be stopped, normally due to inclement weather making playing conditions unsafe, they and the referee should consult with the two team captains. If the game is to be stopped then the responsibility for restarting, rescheduling or scoring the match as if completed rests with the Tournament Committee.

c. Dress. Umpires must wear a shirt or jacket with distinctive black and white vertical lines with clean white breeches or jeans and polished brown boots. They must wear a hard hat with a chin strap properly fastened and correctly positioned when mounted.


5. Personal Preparation and Conduct. Polo is one of the hardest games to umpire and the umpire must:

a. Know the rules. This should include the names of all the Penalties

b. Concentrate on the play throughout.

c. Be respectful, consistent, fair, clear, firm and decisive.


6. Prior to the Game.

a. An umpire should be issued by the host club with an umpire shirt, whistle (check that it works) and pick up stick.

b. Check that the pony looks up to the job and is tacked for polo with ball bags.

c. Check on the teams’ colours to ensure that there is sufficient contrast. The Umpires have the ultimate say.

d. Check on the other officials, the location of the referee, that the radios are working if being used, that the time keeper is alert

e. Check on the location of the medical support.

f. Check the scoreboard to ensure any handicap difference has been correctly credited.

g. The umpires with the help if the referee if he is on the radio must police changing of ponies, ensuring that it is fair to both sides, so the changing boxes must be clarified with the host club.

h. Decide on which side and back line each is to take.


7. Start of the Game.

a. If no parade, ride onto the ground together at least two minutes before the scheduled start time of the match. The umpires should be informed if there is going to be a parade before the match. If so, it is advisable for the umpires to have decided ends before going onto the ground.

b. Identify the two team captains and toss for ends. The captain of the visiting team is normally asked to make the call.

c. Check the handicaps of the two teams and confirm that both team captains agree with the score as posted.

d. Check that the teams know where they can change ponies.

e. Check the length and serviceability of whips, length and sharpness of spurs.


8. Splitting the Field of Play and Positioning. It is important that the two umpires are clear as to their positioning during play and for all throw-ins and free hits. Umpires must keep up with the game. Players are more likely to accept the foul if the umpire is close to the play.

a. Splitting the Field. Each umpire should have a back line and side line. An Umpire should normally go behind the striker for any free hit away from his back line and take the throw in if it is away from his side line with the other umpire. In both cases, he then becomes the trailing umpire. The other umpire takes the position on the 30-yard line for a free hit and about 40 yards behind the players for a throw in. He is then in the parallel position and should move up the ground level with the play.

b. Goal Scored. When a goal is scored, one umpire should canter as if from the back line bringing the last player with him. When he reaches the centre, the ball shall be thrown in to restart play. Should a team cause unnecessary delay, the whistle should be blown and a Penalty 5b awarded.

c. Free Hits. The umpire with the back line should be behind the ball so that he can see the exact line and get a clear view of an opposing player coming in for a meet. The other umpire should be watching the 30-yard line to check that the opposing side do not cross the line before the ball is hit or hit at.

d. Throw Ins. A game will normally have a lot of throw ins not least because the ball will be thrown in by the umpire in the following circumstances:

• At the start of the match or on restarting after an interval if a penalty has not been awarded.

• After a goal has been scored or Penalty 1 awarded.

• If the ball has gone out of play over the side lines or boards.

• After an accident or injury or any break in play.

• If the umpires award Penalty 8.

• If the whistle has been blown for a foul and the umpires or the referee rule ‘No Foul’.

• If the ball has been carried unintentionally, trodden in or split.

For a throw in:

• There should be a distinct gap separating the two teams which must remain stationary. Thus, there should be no contact between players on opposing sides before the ball is thrown in although this is rarely achieved.

• The ball should be thrown in towards the nearest side lines or boards in a consistent manner, hard, under hand and low to prevent players hitting wildly in the line-out.

• All rough and dangerous play should be penalised instantly but umpires should not normally

penalise players for crossing until the ball has left the lineout unless it is dangerous.


9. Advantage Rule. Should a foul be committed and the foul is neither deliberate nor dangerous, the umpires may choose to allow play to continue if it would disadvantage the player fouled or his team were play stopped. However, if the player fouled is unable to maintain the advantage then play should be stopped and the penalty awarded. To signal that he has seen the foul but is playing the advantage, the umpire should say ‘Play On’ and raise his hand. The Advantage Rule should be used with discretion as the team fouled will usually prefer a penalty rather than to have play continue.


10. Blowing for a Foul. Umpires must blow the whistle quickly, decisively and loudly with one long blast to stop the play. A strong whistle is a sign of confidence and the timekeeper must be able to hear the whistle as well in order to stop the clock

a. If either umpire sees a foul he should blow the whistle. If the umpire on the line blows for a crossing foul, the other umpire should usually defer to him unless he is very clear that the distance and speed were safe.

b. Having blown his whistle an umpire should check quickly that the other umpire agrees with the foul and the proposed penalty. This should be done by pointing or another pre-arranged signal.

c. The foul, the team that has fouled and the penalty awarded should then be announced and the umpire should quickly drop the ball so that the ball can be positioned by the team fouled. The ball should normally be dropped by the umpire due to go behind the striker.

d. If the whistle has been blown for a foul against the defending team as a goal is scored then the goal will stand even if it is decided that there has been ‘No foul’ and the umpires shall instruct the goal judge to wave his flag. The clock will be restarted at this point. If it is agreed that the defending team have committed a foul, the umpires should take into account the severity of the foul as they have the option of a Penalty 1, a Penalty 5b or throw in as normal. If awarding a penalty then the whistle must be blown to signify that a penalty has been awarded and to stop the clock.


11. Appeals to the Referee. Discussion between the umpires should be kept to a minimum and should only take place if there is disagreement. Too frequent reference to the referee will delay the game unnecessarily and undermine the authority of the umpires. The umpires after discussion are perfectly entitled to throw the ball in without reference to the referee. However, if they disagree as to the whether there has been a foul or as to what penalty to award, they shall appeal to the referee by raising an arm.


12. Appealing by Players

a. Use discretion for appealing by players. If persistent, warn the players first. However, helicoptering or any appeal which is dangerous or abusive must be penalised without warning.

b. Do not enter into discussion with the captains or any other player as to their conduct during the game. In avoiding discussion, be polite, do not be aggressive. However, this does not mean that you cannot speak to players who genuinely wish to know why they have fouled, especially at the lower levels, and this can be done between chukkas or at the end of the game.


13. Selection of Penalty
Umpires should know both the number and name of the penalties., and what penalty to award if either team do not follow the correct procedures.

b. They should take into account the degree of danger, where the foul took place, the direction of play, the position of the players and the frequency of similar fouls. A defending team that has fouled has the opportunity to regroup and get into the best position for defence, thus the penalty should be made to count and moved up the ground. The penalty should be increased for any persistent breach of a rule. If the umpires cannot agree they should consult the referee.

c. The umpires may move a penalty back from where a foul occurred, for example if a defender fouled within his own 30 yard line near the boards and the goal is not directly threatened the umpires may award a Penalty 3 or 4 as appropriate.

d. A Penalty 5a shall not awarded for a foul by a defending player within his own 60 but rather a Penalty 2, 3 or 4. A penalty 5a would allow the team fouled to dribble the ball, which they would prefer, so it is important that the team that has fouled is suitably penalised.


14. Calling Play and Delay. The umpire behind the striker is responsible for calling ‘Play’ and should do so when he is satisfied that both sides are in position, and no unnecessary delay has occurred.

a. Hitting Before ‘Play’ is Called. If the striker hits or hits at the ball before “Play’ is called the umpire shall blow his whistle and award a Penalty 7a. If the offence is repeated, then the team should be penalised with a Penalty 8a.

b. Delay by Side Hitting In. In the event of unnecessary delay by the side hitting in, the umpire shall call for the ball to be hit in at once. If the umpire’s request is not complied with, he shall award a Penalty 8b.

c. Delay by Side Facing Hit In. In the event of unnecessary delay by the side facing the hit in, a Penalty 7c shall be awarded.

d. Delay. Delay is a personal foul and is often used to enable another member of the team to change ponies. A player may be warned but only once. He should then be penalised. The reasonableness of the delay is at the umpires’ discretion, depending on the circumstances of the situation.


15. Blowing to Stop the Clock.

a. It is not in the gift of the team captains to agree time out except if agreed for friendly matches or for a team is on borrowed ponies.

b. An umpire, particularly if he is alone, may blow the whistle to stop the clock for a good reason, such as to get into position or to pick up a ball.

c. For Players or Ponies. The umpires have a responsibility to do all that they can to prevent accident or injury to players or ponies and to protect the image of the sport.

(i) The clock must be stopped if a pony is showing any signs of distress or blood in its mouth or on its flanks and the pony must be sent off.

(ii) If a pony is out of control it must be sent off to prevent injury to others.

(iii) If a pony falls or appears to be lame, the umpires must stop the game and see that the pony is trotted up. If not sound it should be taken off the ground in the most humane way possible.

(iv) The game will be stopped immediately in the interest of safety for tack which presents a danger to any player or pony such as a broken girth or broken martingale if the end trails on the ground, broken rein if single, broken or loose bit, broken curb chain or loose bandages or boots. The umpire may allow the player to rectify the fault immediately on the ground if it can be done quickly, otherwise the player must leave the field of play and play will be restarted as soon as the player has done so, unless the tack has been broken by contact with another pony in which case the start of play will be delayed until his return. Time out should not be given for lost or broken tack such as a martingale, stirrup leather or iron, lost bandages or boots if, in the umpires opinion, there is no danger to the players or ponies.

(v) Player Dismounted. If a player is unseated from his pony, the umpires shall not stop the game until play is neutral unless they are of the opinion that the player is injured or is liable to be injured, in which case they should stop play immediately. The umpire shall re-start the game with a throw in directly after the player concerned is ready to resume play and shall not wait for any other player. If a player dismounts without good reason a penalty should be awarded against his team. A dismounted player shall not hit the ball nor interfere with the play and should be penalised if he makes insufficient effort to retain hold of his pony.

d. Offside. If a player is off the field at the time of the free hit in, he must enter behind the 30 yard line. A Penalty 5a or an upgrade should be awarded against a player who is offside.

e. Umpires Discretion. Should a goal post be knocked down or similar incident not covered in the rules, then the umpires should allow play to continue until it is neutral. Should a goal post fall in such a way as to stop a goal which in the judgement of the umpires would have been scored then it should be awarded. A similar ruling will apply if the ball hits a flag at the top of a goalpost


16. Accident. If a serious accident to a player or pony occurs then the umpires must immediately take charge.

a. If a player is injured then the umpires should stop the game and summon medical assistance by waving the pick-up stick above the head. They should keep players and any others who come onto the ground away from the medical team except those who are actively helping. They should consult with the Team Captain of the injured player about possible substitutes and keep the commentator informed as to what is happening. Taking into account the paramount need to treat the injured player in the best conditions possible, the umpires should endeavour to restart the match as soon as possible. They must get clearance from the Medical Officer before allowing a player, who could have suffered concussion, to play. If there is no Medical Officer present then this responsibility devolves onto the umpires.

b. If a pony is injured or stays down the umpires should ask the players to form a circle to shield the pony from spectators. If a Veterinary Officer is present, then he will take charge. Otherwise the umpires should ensure that screens are erected, if necessary, and the pony is removed by trailer from the ground as humanely and speedily as possible. Try to keep the commentator informed to cover up as best he can.


17. Line of the Ball and Precedence. As a general principle, the player who creates the danger should be penalised. It is important to try to be consistent in what is blown and what is allowed.

a. Line of the Ball (LOB). The LOB is the key reference from which the umpire must make his judgement as to who has precedence and he must therefore watch the play very closely to pick up the LOB every time the ball is hit and then immediately identify if anyone is on the exact LOB travelling in either direction. If no player is on the LOB, he is then looking for a player travelling in the same direction as the ball and at the narrowest angle. If at the narrowest angle a player has the right to play the ball on his off side and, because he has that option can only play the ball on his nearside if he can do so without endangering a player who is in position or can get into position to make a legitimate play without crossing the player with precedence.

b. Crossing and Turning the Ball. Whether a player crosses another player in such a way as to foul is a judgement call by the umpires and will depend on their assessment of danger based on speed and distance. In open play the call is often easy enough but is more difficult when a player turns with the ball with an opponent following in close order behind. The player following has to commit to the play and cannot be judged to have committed if he checks or turns in anticipation of a backhand. The umpires must make a judgement on the level of commitment and be prepared to penalise the player turning before a collision occurs.

c. Blocking and Tapping. A player may not block the progress of an opponent in possession by positioning himself in such a way that his opponent cannot move forward. A player in possession should be allowed approximately 5 feet wide measured from the ball to the player’s near side leg to continue down the LOB. Blocking (or shading)is done at all speeds and should be blown straight away and any penalty must be moved up the field. A Penalty 5a will normally be awarded for breach of this rule.

d. Delay of Game. A Penalty 5a will normally be awarded for breach of this rule.

e. Checking.

(i) A player will often check to avoid a ride off, either because he knows he is beaten or to gain a foul on the basis that his opponent has not entered safely in front of him. It is a judgement as to whether the player checked and his opponent entered safely or he checked to avoid a nasty ride off. One of the players will always disagree so consistency is key.

(ii) Should a player check so that an opponent can enter safely in front, the player cannot then accelerate into his opponent from behind.

f. Riding Off.

(i) The rules on riding off are clear. Shoulder to shoulder and same speed is key, and then a safe angle relative to the speed; as the speed increases so the angle needs to decrease. If a player rides in from behind, he must be penalised, whether or not his opponent is playing a forehand or backhand shot. A player may not put his pony at risk by riding over the ball and into an opponent who has already started the downward swing of a full forehand or backhand stroke. This does not prevent a player from riding off when an opponent is tapping the ball or has not started the downward swing of a full forehand or backhand stroke.

(ii) A player may hook legitimately the stick of an opponent at the same time as the opponent is being ridden off by a team mate.

(iii) Riding Off when Ball is Dead or Out of Play. If there is riding off between players before the ball is put into play from a free hit or throw in, the umpires should blow the whistle (to stop the clock if it is not already stopped) and warn the players or player concerned. Umpires should penalise a team if the infringement is repeated or considered to be intentional in order to stop the clock. It can be difficult to judge who has ridden off or been ridden off.

g. Unsportsmanlike Behaviour.

(i) Unless there are exceptional circumstances a player must be penalised if he whips his pony when the ball is dead or whips his pony hard, in particular with his hand off the reins, or with such force so that the crack can be heard around the ground, or is persistent in the use of the whip. For this offence the umpires should award as a minimum a Penalty 5b.

(ii) If a player is behaving dangerously so as to be a hazard to himself or other players he must be warned, penalised and if necessary sent off. Common faults are dangerous use of the stick particularly in a melee, zigzagging in front of another pony, slowing down on the ball and hitting the ball hard into a crowd of players.

(iii) A player who is holding the ball through dribbling should be penalised if he is judged to have created the danger by then playing a full shot.

(iv) If a hit is made after the whistle for a foul, the umpires should increase the severity of the penalty if the hit is by a member of the fouling team, or cancel the penalty or decrease its severity if the hit is by a member of the team fouled.


18. Supervision of Free Hits. For Penalty free hits, the umpires must watch the flight of the ball carefully as many disputes arise as to whether the ball went between the inside edge of the posts projected vertically upwards or not and across and clear of the goal line. In the event of dispute, their decision, not the goal judge’s, is final but they should give the benefit of the doubt to the side defending.

a. Penalty 2 (30 Yard Hit). The team that has fouled has no play. Check that they are not between the goal posts and that they do not distract the striker. The back line umpire should be behind the right hand goal post looking onto the field of play with the goal judge behind the other.

b. Penalty 2 (Spot Hit). Check that no player is between the goal posts when the hit is taken or comes out between the goal posts and that defending players are 30 yards from the ball and behind the back line. If not. The umpire shall raise an arm and allow the penalty to be taken as normal; if successful, play will be started with a Penalty 5b, teams having changed ends; if unsuccessful then a Penalty 7a will be awarded.

c. Penalty 3 (Forty Yard Hit). The back line umpire should be behind the right hand goal post looking onto the field of play with the goal judge behind the other. Check that no player is between the goal posts when the hit is taken or comes out between the goal posts and that defending players are behind the back line and do not cross the back line until the ball is in play. If not, the umpire shall raise an arm and allow the penalty to be taken as normal; if successful, play will be started with a Penalty 5b, teams having changed ends; if unsuccessful then a Penalty 7a will be awarded.

d. Penalties 3, 4 and 6. The striker must have the intent to carry out Penalties 3, 4 and 6 in only one hit and may not make a preliminary hit for himself or a team mate. If he mishits, misdirects or misses the ball he or any member of his team may only hit or hit at the ball with half shot, that is with the head of the stick starting the downward swing below the shoulder of the striker, until the ball has been hit or hit at by an opponent. However, the stick may be raised above the shoulder of any player to stop or deflect the ball providing that the head of the stick does not move a significant distance as contact is made with the ball. Any action which the umpires consider dangerous should be penalised. A Penalty 8a will normally be awarded for any infringement by any member of the team taking the penalty but a Penalty 5a from where the penalty was taken or was due to be taken if the infringement was considered to be deliberate or is a repeat offence.

e. Penalty 4 (Sixty Yard Hit). The backline umpire should be behind the right hand goal post as he looks out from the back line with the goal judge on the left post. Be on guard to penalise a full shot after the initial hit.

f. Penalty 5a (Hit from the Spot). Penalty 5a should not be awarded against a defending team within their own 60 yard line. The umpires should award a Penalty 2, 3 or 4 as appropriate taking into account the point where the foul took place, the severity of the foul and the likelihood of a goal being scored if the attacker had not been fouled. There is no rule to say that the ball may not be taken back for a Penalty.

g. Penalty 6 (Ball hit behind by Defender). The defending player will often argue that it was off another player and it is crucial that the rule is understood. If the view of the goal judge is consulted, ask for the facts, who hit the ball last and what it then deflected off, so that the rule can then be applied. The ball should be placed on the 60 yard line opposite where it went out of play over the back line but not more than 40 yards from the centre. The backline umpire will take the right hand goal post in line with the ball with the goal judge likewise on the left.

h. Sending Off. The umpires have the option of sending a player off for 2 minutes or the rest of the game, in addition to any other penalty. A player will usually be sent off for a dangerous or deliberate foul or unsportsmanlike behaviour.


19. Report Forms. The umpires are required to fill in a Report Form after the game for any irregularities or incidents of misconduct.